Meteora is a complex of huge, dark-colored rocks of sandstone, rising out of Kalambaka, near the first hills of Pindos and Hassia. The Meteora monasteries, built on the top of some of the rocks, are now the second most important monastic complex in Greece, after Mount Athos. Of the thirty that have historically existed, only six are now operating, which since 1988 have been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.The average altitude is 313 meters. Studies show that the rocks formed about 65 million years ago during the Paleogenic Period. The disintegration, erosion and earthquakes then gave them their present shape. The creation of the geological landscape, although it has occasionally occupied many Greek and foreign geologists, has not yet been clearly interpreted. Interestingly, neither Greek mythology nor the ancient Greeks, nor any foreign historian, has been mentioned in this area. According to the theory of the German geologist Alexander Phillipson, who visited Greece in the late 19th century, the creation of these enormous boulders was due to a deltoid cone of river boulders and limestone rocks that for millions of years poured into a sea area covering at that time Thessaly. The geological changes of the ages lifted and excited this part when the waters of the Aegean were removed. Thus, later in the tertiary period of the alpine ridges of the Pindus mountain range, this cone was cut off from its compact form, creating smaller ones, those present today, and among them the valley of Pinios river. Inside these rocks is the cave of Theopetra.
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